Design of a robot vision system module

I. Overview

Vision technology is an emerging technology that has developed in recent decades. Machine vision can replace human vision for inspection, target tracking, robot guidance, etc., especially in situations where repeated and rapid acquisition of accurate information from images is required. Although the machine vision function is still at the primary level under the current hardware and software technology conditions, its potential application value has attracted great attention from all countries in the world. Developed countries such as the United States, Japan, Germany, France, etc. have invested a lot of manpower and resources. In recent years, breakthroughs have been made in some aspects of machine vision. Machine vision has become more and more important in applications such as vehicle safety technology and automation technology. This paper designs a general vision system module based on the latest CMOS image acquisition chip. After programming different image processing and pattern recognition algorithms, this module can be applied to soccer robots, unmanned vehicles and other occasions.

Second, the design principle

The system block diagram is shown in the figure.

The system consists of five main chips: image acquisition chip OV7620, high-speed microprocessor SH4, large-scale programmable array FPGA, and serial communication control chip MAX232. The FPGA internally program sets up two dual-port RAMs to generate the dot frequency, line sync and other signals required by the image sensor, and to control the storage timing of the dual port RAM. SH4 is responsible for configuring the OV7620 through I2C, reading the image data of the dual-port RAM, processing it, and uploading image data through the serial port or controlling other devices such as stepping motors.

Third, the image acquisition module

The system module is based on the CMOS image sensor OV7620. It also includes a condenser lens and other auxiliary components such as a 27MHZ crystal oscillator, resistors and capacitors.

The COMS image sensor is a new type of image sensor that has developed rapidly in recent years. Because of the same COMS technology, the pixel array and the peripheral support circuit can be integrated on the same chip, which is a complete image system (CameraonChip). The system uses a CMOS color image sensor OV7620 from Ommnvision with a resolution of 640x480. It works in progressive scan mode and works in interlaced mode. It can not only output color images, but also can be used as a black and white image sensor. The chip supports a variety of image output formats: 1) YCrCb4: 2: 216bit / 8bit format; 2) ZV port output format; 3) RGB raw data 16bit / 8bit; 4) CCIR601 / CCIR656 format. Its functions include contrast, brightness, saturation, white balance and auto exposure, sync signal position and polarity output, frame rate and output format can be programmed through the I2C bus to configure on-chip register control.

The concentrating lens uses a DSL103 lens produced by Sandis. This lens is small enough for embedded vision sensor applications.

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