Traditional lighting sources include incandescent, tungsten halogen, fluorescent, and high-intensity discharge lamps. Compared with this, solid-state illumination sources using high-brightness LEDs have many advantages: low power consumption, high luminous efficiency, long life, fast response, easy digital control, and environmental friendliness.
Comparison of light efficiency between LED and traditional light source
According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), 22% of the US electricity is used for lighting. The DOE claims that in the next 20 years, LED lighting will be rapidly popularized in the United States, reducing the need for lighting power by 62%. In addition, it can eliminate 258 million tons of silica emissions and build 133 new power plants. The use of LED lighting can reduce the fiscal year by more than $115 billion.
In China, the National Semiconductor Lighting Engineering R&D and Industry Alliance has been established. The technical specifications formulated by the alliance will be promoted and used within the alliance through seminars and training, and recommended to the government procurement department and standard management department, incorporated into the national and industry standard work system, and guide and promote the formulation of national and industry standards. Implementation. At the appropriate time, the Alliance will set up the "Association Standardization Technical Committee" and invite government leaders, industry experts, standardization experts, quality inspection agencies, and testing equipment experts to participate. The state has introduced an interim measures for the management of financial subsidies for efficient lighting products. This is another important measure for the Chinese government to increase efforts to promote efficient lighting products and promote energy conservation and emission reduction targets, and ensure the realization of financial subsidies during the 11th Five-Year Plan period. Promote 150 million high-efficiency lighting products, saving 29 billion kWh of electricity and reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 29 million tons.
At present, China's semiconductor lighting is mainly used in special lighting fields, such as traffic lights, landscape lighting, LED full-color displays, etc., but the energy-saving effect is obvious: such as landscape lighting (replacement of neon lights) energy-saving 70%, traffic lights (alternative incandescent lamps) Energy saving 80%; garden lights energy saving 70%. In the field of functional lighting, energy-saving effects have begun to emerge, such as LEDs as a secondary road light (instead of high-pressure sodium lamps) energy-saving 70%. Although the initial purchase price is three times that of ordinary street lamps, the overall cost is about 3-4 years. It is expected that when the luminous efficiency of LED products reaches 100 lm/W, it will enter the general lighting market, saving 50 billion kWh annually, and reducing CO2, SO2, NOx and dust emissions by 50 million tons. When the luminous efficiency of LED products reaches 150 lm/W, LED lighting will occupy 20% of the lighting market (lighting power will exceed 500 billion kWh), saving 100 billion kWh per year, exceeding the annual power generation of the Three Gorges Hydropower Station ( 84.7 billion kWh/year). By saving electricity, it can reduce CO2, SO2, NOx and dust emissions by 100 million tons.
At present, LED mature application market: architectural landscape lighting, architectural landscape lighting, advertising display, small-size LCD backlight, automotive applications, solar LED lighting. In the future, there are still broader application prospects, such as medium and large size LCD backlights, road lighting, indoor ordinary white light illumination, artificial light sources for agricultural production, medical light sources, LED liquid crystal projectors, DLP rear projection LED light sources, and aviation. Lighting source, museum artifacts display lighting, etc.
The industrial chain of ED solid-state lighting is also widely distributed. In the upstream of the industrial chain, including semiconductor material supply, wafer fabrication, packaging and so on. In the middle reaches, including power drives, optical components, heat sinks, etc. Downstream, including lighting, lighting management software, engineering system integration, etc. Among them, the role of the power drive unit is to provide a constant current for the LED, to achieve dimming, color mixing, communication with the host computer, thermal monitoring and so on. At present, LED-driven dedicated chips can be found in the product lines of many integrated circuit suppliers. Recently, the technical trend of this type of driver chip is that the power switching device is integrated into the chip, the switching mode operates at a higher frequency, and the chip has a wider operating voltage. For low-current LED drivers, such chips typically use switched capacitors to implement a charge pump with a limited total output current. For high-current LED driving, inductor-based switching topologies such as boost, buck, and sepic are generally used. Due to the operating frequency of the MHZ, the inductance therein has been able to be miniaturized. Conversion efficiency is one of the important indicators of this type of circuit, and under the best conditions, it can achieve an efficiency of up to 95%. The control of the current loop can be roughly divided into two categories, one is hysteresis control, and the other is average current control. Both have their own advantages and disadvantages. For hysteresis control, the dynamic response is fast but the current accuracy is poor. For average current control, the control accuracy is higher, but the dynamic response is slower. Both control modes require sampling and feedback of the current signal. The current is sampled in a variety of ways, including low-side current sampling, high-side current sampling, and floating current sampling. Different topology, different control methods, and different current sampling positions can be used for different application requirements.
In general, LEDs are widely used and widely used in the field of lighting. They are considered to be the third revolution in artificial light sources, and their impact is extremely far-reaching.
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